Case Study:
Improvement in the Quality of the Aluminum Manifolds made from Gravity Casting

The problem part in question was a manifold, a major component in vehicles. Gravity casting is used to make these Aluminum Manifolds. Machining and polymer infiltration processes are also used in their manufacturing.

Casting Application: Aluminum Manifolds

Product overview :

The problem part in question was a manifold, a major component in vehicles. Gravity casting is used to make these aluminum manifolds. Machining and polymer infiltration processes are also used in their manufacturing.

Issues :

Three issues were faced regarding this product:

Shrinkage Porosity issues and the solutions

Shrinkage porosity was caused by the inappropriate design of the running system. Sprue, gates, and risers design had to be improved in order to avoid shrinkage porosity from our manifolds. Since manifolds have round and curved shapes, it is usually difficult for molten metal to be evenly distributed throughout the cavity if sprue and risers designs are incompatible. Therefore, shrinkage porosity issues were tackled by redesigning the running system.

Software simulations were also used. We ran simulations to optimise the filling of cavities through improved running system designs and predicted the occurrence of shrinkage porosity. To be more specific, porosity usually occurs on the faces or 0.5-1.0 mm deep below the faces. Good feeding, running, and gating system design reduced the common porosity issues from our manifolds.

Shrinkage Porosity_Aluminum Manifolds_Leaking Test_defect free casting_Omnidex
Aluminum Manifolds Close Up_defect free casting_Omnidex
Aluminum Manifolds Close Up

Leak Testing Aluminum Castings

At Omnidex, ‘Leaking Tests’ are used to ensure leak-free castings meet the castings’ intended pressure-testing requirements.

It involves submerging a casting in a liquid, usually water, after the casting is pressurized with air. An operator examines the submerged casting and looks for any bubbles that may escape from the casting. In addition to preventing casting defects from reaching a customer, this process also prevents any casting that may contain a casting defect from reaching any assembly or production line.

Aluminum Manifolds_Leaking Test_defect free casting_Omnidex
Omnidex has developed a number of leak test systems for testing auto parts such as engine blocks, aluminum or steel sump housings, water pump housings, battery cooling systems, etc.

The product specifications (dimensional) issue was resolved by using precise and accurate fixtures and replacing the 3-axis CNC machine with a 4-axis CNC machine. Sand core position while casting is very critical in determining the runners’ position and surface finish of the manifold.

These two factors have a strong effect on the aluminum manifolds performance and must be considered while designing the fixtures. Hence, after redesigning the fixtures and using the advanced CNC machines, product dimension issues were rectified.

Finally, leakage issues were resolved when we started using the polymer infiltration process after machining. In addition, we introduced leakage testing for each and every product before dispatching it to the customers. Thus, we applied rigorous quality checks to avoid passing faulty and defective products to the customer.

Benefits of Resolving Shrinkage Porosity

There are many benefits we observed after resolving the issues of shrinkage porosity:

Results and Conclusion

After implementing all the above-recommended solutions developed by our experts, the number of rejections and defects in manifolds has become defect-free. Our team embraced this challenge as an opportunity for improvement. We stepped in with speed, engineering creativity, and an innovative mind in this issue with the aim of producing high-quality and defect-free aluminum manifolds.

Contact our Engineering Team to learn more about our diverse manufacturing and engineering service and how we can help on your projects.

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Omnidex is a World-Class Manufacturing and Engineering company that produces high quality, porosity-free casting products which are trusted by companies across different industries. Throughout the whole process, from product development to delivery, we strive to provide you with unwavering support. Providing you with unmatched diverse capabilities and experience, we help you overcome any obstacle.

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